Re: How to build ontologies (Sofia )
Date: Wed, 19 Jun 96 17:54:36 +0100
From: (Sofia )
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Subject: Re: How to build ontologies
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I'm collecting all/every reference/paper I can find about the topic of
how to build ontologies properly.  What I am aware of so far is (in no
particular order):

. Gruber's suggested guidelines for designing ontologies.
. Gomez-Perez's papers on how to evaluate ontologies 
. Skuce's paper on how to reach agreement on shared ontologies;
. Gruninger's method for building the TOVE ontology
. Uschold and King's method used for building the Enterprise Ontology

There are no doubt other papers around that address one or more aspects
of this issue.  If you know of any, please send them with URL's or ftp
information where possible to me (or the whole list, if you like).  I
will then compile them and send in a group.

Mike Uschold

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Sometime ago, at the SRKB mailing list, Mark Fox from the
Toronto University mentioned his approach to build ontologies.
He didn't mentioned any papers. 
Very shortly, he started by defining a set of competence questions,
then he built a taxonomy of terms, then he attached a documentation to the 
terms at the taxonomy and finally he formally defined the
constraints to impose at the terms in the taxonomy
(if you want I can explain more thoroughly these phases).

Peter Clark mentioned another methodology, also at the SRKB mailing list.
His approach can be called factor-analysis or ''plug-fix-and-play''
(in his own words "a bit like playing with lego").
He recently wrote a paper so you can ask him if he can send it to you.
(his mail is

Since I've been doing a survey on the area I would very much
appreciate if you could send me all information about Gruber's
Gomez-Perez's, Skuce's, Gruninger's and Uschold's approaches and all others
that you may come to know about.

Best wishes,


Helena Sofia Pinto                   Phone + 351 - 1 - 8417472
Instituto Superior Tecnico           Email
Departamento de Eng. Mecanica
Seccao de Sistemas
Av. Rovisco Pais 
1096 Lisboa