Reference: Clancey, W. J. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Tutorial Survey. Universite de L'Etat, Belgium, 1986.
Abstract: This survey of Intelligent Tutoring Systems is based on a tutorial originally presented by John Seely Brown, Richard R. Burton (Xerox-Parc, USA) and William J. Clancey at the National Conference on AI (AAAI) in Austin, Texas in August, 1984. The survey describes the components of tutoring systems, different teaching scenarios, and their relation to a theory of instruction. The underlying pedagogical approach is to make latent knowledge manifest, which the research accomplishes by different forms of qualitative modeling: simulating physical processes; simulating expert problem-solving, including strategies for monitoring and controlling problem solving (metacognition); modeling the plans behind procedural behavior; and forcing articulation of model inconsistencies through the Socratic method of instruction. Proceeding chronologically, examples of intelligent tutoring systems are described in terms of their internal knowledge representations and the evolving pedagogical theory. Although these programs are generally only research projects, examples of what they can do make abundantly clear the long-term scientific and software-engineering advantages of the new modeling methodology.