report on Very Large KB conference

Tom Gruber <gruber@HPP.Stanford.EDU>
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Date: Tue, 10 May 1994 15:12:01 -0800
From: Tom Gruber <gruber@HPP.Stanford.EDU>
Subject: report on Very Large KB conference
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Here is a report on the First International Conference on the Building and
Sharing of Very Large-Scale Knowledge Bases, held in Tokyo.  The report was
written by James Hendler, and originally posted to and redistibuted by the
US Office of Naval Research Asia office.   It is reposted here with
permission of the author.

 Dr. David K. Kahaner
 US Office of Naval Research Asia
 (From outside US):  23-17, 7-chome, Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106 Japan
 (From within  US):  Unit 45002, APO AP 96337-0007
  Tel: +81 3 3401-8924, Fax: +81 3 3403-9670
Re: Building/Sharing Very Large Knowledge Bases (KBKS'93), Tokyo 12/93.
04/27/94 (MM/DD/YY)
This file is named "kbks-93.94"

ABSTRACT. Summary of the first International Conference on the Building
and Sharing of Very Large-Scale Knowledge Bases (KBKS'93) which took
place from Dec 1-4, 1993 in Tokyo Japan.

This summary was prepared by
               Prof. James A. Hendler
               Dept. of Computer Science
               University of Maryland
               College Park, MD 20742
                Tel: (301) 405-2696; Fax: (301) 405-6707
                Email: HENDLER@CS.UMD.EDU

  Report on the First International Conference on the Building and
      Sharing of Very Large-Scale  Knowledge Bases (KBKS'93)

The First International Conference on the Building and Sharing of Very
Large-Scale Knowledge Bases (KBKS'93) took place from Dec 1-4, 1993 in
Tokyo Japan.  The meeting consisted of a two-day conference open to a
wide audience, followed by a smaller two-day workshop focusing on
technical issues.  Dr. Kazuhiro Fuchi (University of Tokyo) chaired
the Organizing Committee for this meeting, Dr. Toshio Yokoi (EDR
Ltd.)  chaired the Steering and Program Committee for the Conference,
and Prof. Riichiro Mizoguchi (Osaka University) chaired the
organization of the workshop.  The conference had close to five
hundred attendees, with about eighty five non-Japanese scientists from
a large number of different countries attending.  The workshop was
limited to about seventy five participants, again representing a large
number of countries.  The US National Science Foundation provided
travel funds for fourteen North American scientists to attend, and a
number of other international agencies also provided support (A
complete list of sponsors is provided at the end of this report.)

This conference focused on bringing together researchers from
throughout the international community who were interested in
designing and building larger knowledge bases than those in use today.
In addition, the topic of how to share such knowledge bases (as a
technical, social, and political problem) was also addressed.  The
conference also served, in part, to introduce the international
community to Japan's plans for the building of several Very Large
Knowledge Bases (VLKBs), administered through the Ministry of
International Trade And Industry (MITI).  This ambitious plan will
involve both the development of the knowledge repositories, and making
these VLKBs available to other researchers.  Also presented at the
meeting were US projects including MCC's CYC Project (directed by
Douglas Lenat), an ambitious multi-year project to build a VLKB
consisting of great deals of "common sense" knowledge, and the Arpa
sponsored "knowledge sharing" initiative, which is focusing on
designing and building tools for the development of interoperable
knowledge sources.  Also discussed were several European Community
Projects to develop large, shared corpora for linguistic and language
processing research and development.

Another notable aspect of this meeting was the interdisciplinary
nature of the work presented.  Researchers included not just
Artificial Intelligence and Information Science researchers, but also
those involved  in the development of academic information services
and digital libraries for use in the sciences and the humanities.
Among the projects presented in these regards were systems under
development at the Japanese National Center for Science Information
Systems and the US Center for Electronic Texts in the Humanities.

Several notable themes emerged from this conference.  The first is
that there are starting to exist large, machine readable, lexicons,
dictionaries and corpora for work in linguistics and natural language.
Notable among these is the Japanese Electronic Dictionary, containing
several hundred thousand words and word-pairs in English and Japanese.
This work is being made available to researchers both in Japan and
abroad, and is expected to be the basis for much work in machine
translation.  Work in the development of lexicons and corpora for the
European languages was also presented (see Session II and Session IV,
below). [See also my report on the Electronic Dictionary Project,
"edr.92", 27 May 1992, DKK].

Another major theme was the need for the linking of knowledge base
technology and existing data repositories, particularly including
corporate knowledge bases.  Ronald Brachman of AT&T Bell Laboratories
(see Session III) discussed techniques for integrating knowledge and
databases, and details of several other projects aiming towards this end
were presented at the workshop.  The related issue of how knowledge
sources could be obtained automatically (i.e. without human knowledge
engineering efforts) was also discussed by Dr. Yorick Wilks (University
of Sheffield, UK), Susan Armstrong (University of Geneva, Switzerland),
and Hozumi Tanaka (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan).

The third main theme presented focused on the development of knowledge
sharing technologies.  This included reports on the US Arpa Knowledge
Sharing Effort (presented at the conference by William Swartout of the
University of California and at the workshop by Robert Neches (USC) and
Tim Finin of the University of Maryland Baltimore County), Japanese
efforts (presented by Prof. Setsuo Ohsuga of the University of Tokyo),
and European efforts (presented by Prof. Bob Wielinga of the University
of Amsterdam, the Netherlands).  In addition, a panel discussion at the
workshop discussed how international cooperation in the area of
knowledge sharing could be supported.

Those interested in the conference will probably wish to obtain a copy
of the proceedings which is being released as an edited book sometime in
the summer of 1994.  The Second International Conference on the Building
and Sharing of Very Large-Scale Knowledge Bases is tentatively scheduled
for April, 1995, and will take place at the University of Twente in the
Netherlands.  The Chair will be Dr. Nicolaas Mars (

Below I present
 1) Details of ordering the proceedings
 2) A list of speakers and brief summaries of the sessions presented
	at the Conference.
 3) A brief summary of topics and list of the speakers at the Workshop.
 4) A list of sponsors and cooperating organizations
 1) Details of ordering the proceedings

The post conference edition of the proceedings will appear in book
form.  The book is entitled "Knowledge Building and Knowledge Sharing"
edited by Kazuhiro Fuchi and Toshio Yokoi.  It will be published by
Ohmsha Ltd. and IOS Press.  The book is scheduled for release in July,
1994.  Orders can be placed to:
  In Japan:
  Ohmsha Ltd., 3-1 Kanda Nishiki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan

  In North American:
  IOS Press, Postal Drawer 10558, Burke, VA 22009-0558, USA

  In the UK:
  IOS Press, 73 Lime Walk, Headington, Oxford OX3 7AD, England

  In Europe and the rest of the world (except the Far East)
  IOS Press, Van Diemenstraat 94, 1013 CN Amsterdam, The Netherlands

  In the Far East:
  IOS Press and Ohmsha Ltd have joint distributorship

 2) A list of speakers and brief summaries of the sessions presented
	at the Conference.

CONFERENCE Dec 1 -2, 1993   [talks presented in Japanese or English,
				with simultaneous translation]

Speaker list and brief summary of conference topics:

Opening Addresses:

(Opening addresses focused on the importance of building large
knowledge bases and sharing the results in the international

 Eiji Kageyama - President, Japan Information Processing Development
	Center, Japan
 Osamu Watanabe - Director General, Machinery and Information
	Industries Bureau, Ministry of Internation Trade and Industry,
 Yasushiro Kato - Deputy Director-General, Science and Technology
	Agency, Japan
 Su-Shing Chen - Program Director, National Science Foundation, USA

Keynote Addresses:

(Keynote addresses included a review of current International and
Japanese efforts in the design and building of Very Large Knowledge
Bases presented by Dr. Fuchi and a stirring vision, presented by Dr.
Toshio Yokoi, in which he postulated a near-term future in which much
of the intellectual knowledge of mankind is available electronically
for access by humans assisted with knowledge-based tools.)

	From Infancy to Adolescence
	Prof. Kazuro Fuchi, University of Tokyo, Japan
	Chair, KB&KS'93 Organizing Committee

	Very Large-Scale Knowledge Bases Embodying Intelligence Space
	Toshio Yokoi, Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, Japan
	Chair, KB&KB'93 Steering and Program Committee

Session I: Academic and Social Demands for KB & KS
	Chair: Prof. Syun Tutiya, Chiba University, Japan

(This session focused on social demands for building and sharing large
knowledge bases.  Presenters discussed the importance of mutual
cooperation between computer and information scientists, social
sciences, and the humanities, in the formation of an interdisciplinary
research area focusing on building and disseminating electronic
knowledge resources)
	KB and KS as a new Economic and Social Infrastructure
	Ken-Ichi Imai, Director of Research, Stanford Japan Center, Japan

	On the Nature of Human Knowledge
	Norio Fujisawa, Director, Kyoto National Museum
			Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University, Japan

Session II: Language Technology and Science
	Chair: Prof. Yuji Matsumoto, Nara Institute of Science and
		Technology, Japan

(This session presented the current status and future trends in the
natural language processing area.  Topics presented included knowledge
representation for natural language resources, the development of
lexicons and corpora for translation efforts, and new directions in
document processing technology and systems.  Natural language
processing and computation linguistics is one of the areas where large
knowledge sources (machine readable dictionaries, translation
lexicons, and multi-lingual corpora) are currently available.)

	Current Status and Future Trends of Natural Language
	Prof. Makoto Nagai, Kyoto University, Japan

	Analysis and Generation Techniques
	Prof. Hozumi Tanaka, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

	Towards Automated Knowledge Acquisition
	Prof. Yorick Wilks, University of Sheffield, UK

	Acquisition and Exploitation of Textual Resources for NLP
	Prof. Susan Armstrong, University of Geneva, Switzerland

	Knowledge-Based Processing in Machine Translation
	Prof. Jun-Ichi Tsujil, The University of Manchester Institute
		of Science and Technology, UK

Session III: Knowledge Technology and Science
	Chair: Prof. Fumio Mizoguchi, Science University of Tokyo,

(This session aimed to explore the current status and future trends in
the area of "knowledge processing."  Topics included efforts at
standardization for knowledge sharing, the automated learning of
knowledge, and the integration of knowledge- and data-base

	How Can People Share Large Knowledge Bases
	Prof. Setsuo Ohsuga, University of Tokyo, Japan

	Knowledge Sharing: Prospects and Challenges
	Prof. William Swartout, University of Southern California, USA

	Reusable and Shareable Knowledge Bases: A European Perspective
	Prof. Bob Wielinga, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
	Viewing Data Through a Knowledge Representation Lens
	Ronald Brachman, Head, Artificial Intelligen Principles
		Research Department, AT&T Bell Laboratories, USA

	Knowledge Acquisition and Ontology
	Prof. Riichiro Mizoguchi, Osaka Universtiy, Japan

Session IV: Sharable Knowledge Sources
	Chair: Prof. Shojiro Nishio, Osaka University, Japan

(This session presented a number of existing systems which include
very large multi-media databases, text-bases and knowledge bases.
Overviews and "lessons learned" talks presented work in Japan, The
European Community, and the USA on the development of various
knowledge repositories.  Also presented was a talk by Douglas Lenat on
MCC's CYC project, a multi-year attempt to encode massive amounts of
human "commonsense" knowledge.  The CYC project has resulted in the
building of the world's largest knowledge base to date, thus this talk
was of special interest both to those attempting to launch new
knowledge acquisition efforts and those attempting to design automated
means for acquiring knowledge.)

	The Future of Academic Information Services
	Prof. Hisao Yamada, Director of Research and Development
		Department, National Center for Science Information
		Systems, Japan

	Linguistic Resources for the R&D Communities: Problems and
	Prof. Antonio Zampolli, University of Pisa, Italy

	The Role of the Text Encoding Initiative in Creating,
		Maintaining and Using Well- Documented and
		Multi-purpose Electronic Resources
	Prof. Susan Hockey, Director, Center for Electronic texts in
		the Humanities, USA	
	Cyc: Priming the Knowledge Sharing Pump
	Douglas Lenat, Director, Cyc Project, Microelectronics and
		Computer Technology Corporation, USA

Session V: Panel Discussion - Information Infrastructure and
	International Cooperation

(Although a large amount of research has gone into the development of
very large knowledge bases, and into the technology for making these
knowledge bases shareable, little effort to date has focused on
developing the foundations for international cooperation and knowledge
sharing.  This panel discussed both the existing obstacles (technical,
social, and political) to developing such international efforts and to
discuss how international cooperation could be supported.  The
importance of developing "information-oriented" societies, and
international mechanisms to support these, was discussed.)

		Prof. Kazuhiro Fuchi (coordinator), University of
			Tokyo, Japan
		Prof. Christian Rohrer, Stuttgart University, Germany
		Prof. Peter M.D. gray, University of Aberdeen, UK
 		Su-Shing Chen, Program Director, National Science
			Foundation, USA
		Brian Oakley, Director, Logica, UK

Closing Remarks: Masao Teruyama, Executive Managing Director, Japan
	Information Processing Development Center

 3) A brief summary of topics and list of the speakers at the Workshop.

The workshop included technical presentations on a number of
international projects in the building and sharing of very large
knowledge bases.  Topics included (among many others):
* the evaluation of existing systems and corpora (particularly in the
	area of natural language and machine translation systems)
* the use of high performance computing and database technologies for
	supporting very large knowledge bases,
* technologies for both human-intensive and automated efforts at
	building large knowledge bases,
* detailed proposals for information sharing protocols, and
* knowledge representation and ontology issues focusing on how various
	techniques scale up to very large size.

Those interested in more information about particular workshop topics
are encouraged to purchase the proceedings (see details above) or to
contact the presenters directly.

WORKSHOP, Dec 3-4, 1993. [All presentations in English]

Opening Remarks: Prof. Riichiro Mizoguchi, Osaka University, Japan

Session I: Knowledge Sharing
	Toward the Knowledgeable Community, T. Hishida and H. Takeda,
		Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
	Knowledge Sharing in Integrated User Support Environments:
		Applications, Frameworks and Infrastructure,
		R. Neches, Univ. of Southern California, USA
	Context: A real Problem for Large and Shareable Knowledge
		Bases, B. Jansen, CSIRO, Australia
	Sharing of Very Large Scale Knowledge Bases; A rule selection
		approach, D, Karagiannis, Univ of Vienna, Austria, and
		K. Hinkelmann, DFKI, Germany
	A New Framework Of Very Large Knowledge-Bases, K. Yokota and
		A. Aiba, Institute for New Generation Computer
		Technology, Japan
	Linguistic Instruments in Knowledge Engineering: A Research
		Proposal and Some Experiments, R. van de Riet, Vrije
		University, the Netherlands

Session II: From Data bases to Knowledge Bases

	Adapting Database Implementation Techniques to Manage Very
		Large Knowledge bases, J. Mylopoulos and V. Chaudhri,
		University of Toronto, Canada
	Knowledge Discovery in Object-Oriented and Active Databases,
		J. Han, Simon Fraser University, Canada, S. Nishio,
		Osaka University, Japan, and H. Kawano, Kyoto
		University, Japan
Session III: Knowledge Representation
	Context Reflection for Flexible Knowledge Representation, H.
		Nakashima, Electrotechnical Laboratory, Japan
	The Role of Ontologies in Structuring Large Knowledge Bases,
		N. Mars, University of Twente, the Netherlands
	KQML: An Information and Knowledge Exchange Protocol, T.
		Finin, University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA,
		R. Frizson and D. McKay, Unisys Corporation, USA

Session IV: Natural Language Processing and Lexical Knowledge

	Computational Science, Cognitive Science, and Comceptual
		Science: Exploiting Constraints for Multi-Lingual
		Knowledge-Based Systems, R. Berwick, Massachusetts
		Institute of Technology, USA
	Text Compiler and Concept-Tagged Corpus
		H. Yasuhara, Japan Electronic Dictionary Research
		Institute, Japan
	Extracting Knowledge bases from Machine Readable Dictionaries:
		Have we wasted our time?, N. Ide, Vassar College, USA
		and J. Veronis, CNRS and University of Provence, France
	Production of Machine Translation Dictionary with Frequency
		Information, T. Ashizaki, The Japan Information Center
		of Science and Technology, Japan

Session V: Supports and Application of Very Large Knowledge-Bases
	Massively Parallel Matching of Knowledge Structures, J.
		Hendler and W. Andersen, University of Maryland, USA
	Towards Knowledge Intensive Engineering, T. Tomiyana, T.
		Kiriyama, and Y. Umeda, University of Tokyo, Japan
	Building and Sharing Large Knowledge Bases in Molecular
		Genetics, F. Rechenmann, France

Panel: Breakthroughs and Applications for Knowledge Bases and
	Knowledge Sharing

	H. Kitano (chair), Sony CSL, Japan
	J. Hendler, University of Maryland, USA
	T. Nishida, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
	M. Shepherd, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, USA

Closing Remarks: Prof. James Hendler, University of Maryland, USA
 4) A list of sponsors and cooperating organizations

Conference information:

Organized by:
 Japan Information Processing Development Center (JIPDEC)

Supported by:
 Ministere De L'Industrie du Commerce Exterieur, France
 Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie, Germany
 Ministry of International Trade and Indistry, Japan
 Ministry of Education, Japan
 Science and Technology Agency, Japan
 Department of Trade and Industry, UK
 National Science Foundation, USA
 Commision of the European Communities

In Cooperations with:
 Information Processing Society of Japan
 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
 Japanese Cognitive Science Society
 Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence
 Japan Society for Software Science and Technology
 The American Association for Artificial Intelligence
 The Association for Computational Linguistics
 The Association for Computing Machinery (Japan Chapter)
 The European Coordinating Committee on Artifical Intelligence

----------------------------END OF REPORT---------------------------